Hysterosalpingography (HSG oruterosalpingography)
The second very important test for women is the HSG, as damage to the fallopian tubes is also a common cause for female subfertility. The HSG is performed from the 8th to the 10th day of the menstrual cycle by radiologists, while, if difficulties arise in certain cases, the gynaecologist may also be summoned. It is performed without anaesthesia; we usually recommend the woman take ordinary antibiotics the night before, and she may also take some form of analgesic prior to the test. The radiologist inserts a thin catheter into the cervix and injects a radio-opaque contrast agent, thus outlining the silhouette of the uterus and obtaining relevant x-ray images. Subsequently, the radio-opaque material moves towards the fallopian tubes, and from there it pours into the peritoneal cavity; by getting x-ray images during all these phases we can study uterine morphology, whether there is any congenital abnormality (e.g. bicornuate uterus), etc. Furthermore, we check tubal patency and whether the fallopian tubes are of abnormal morphology, whether they are distended, whether there are hyrdosalpinxes, etc.